Lee, G., & Ayhan, K. (2015). Why Do We Need Non-state Actors in Public Diplomacy?: Theoretical Discussion of Relational, Networked and Collaborative Public Diplomacy. Journal of International and Area Studies, 23(1), 57-77.
As a consequence of changing domestic and international socio-political environment, public diplomacy policies require relational, networked and collaborative approaches for more effective and long-term outcomes. This article explores the relevance of non-state actors to public diplomacy and suggests why and how collaboration takes place between state and non-state actors. Furthermore, the article develops a typology of collaboration between state and non-state actors for public diplomacy initiatives based on two dimensions: whose objectives are prioritized in the collaboration and who proposes collaboration. The article suggests that non-state actors’ potential for public diplomacy can be tapped by state when state approaches non-state actors for collaboration as well as opening its channels for collaboration opportunities coming from non-state actors.
Keywords: public diplomacy, non-state actors, public relations, social networks, collaboration